Jute Products Manufacturing Process from Fiber to Product
Jute fiber is a natural bast fiber. It is one of the most affordable natural fibers and is second only to cotton in amount produced and variety of uses of vegetable fibers. It is harder than other textile fibers. It is environment friendly. Normally jute is used for sacking, burlap, and twine as a backing material for tufted carpets.
Chemical Composition of Jute:
Jute is composed of 65% cellulose and 35% natural wages, oils and cement (lignin).
The chemical composition of jute is given below:
- Cellulose ...................................... 65.2%
- Hemicelluloses ...............................22.2%
- Lignin ............................................10.8%
- Water-soluble ................................1.5%
- Fat and wax ..................................0.3 - 1.0%
Classification of Jute:
In accordance with color, jute is two types
- White jute (Corchorus capsularis)
- Tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius)
Classification of jute according to the quality (Geographical distribution according to Bangladesh):
Common Defects Found in Jute:
If the Jute Fibers are not rotted and washed properly; the barks of jute adhere to the fibers and causes them speck. Speck in jute is a major defect of jute which lowers the quality of Jute fibers.
This kind of Jute Defects occurs due to various reasons such as under retting of the root ends of Jute fibers and if the root portion is not completely under water during ratting.
If the top end of the fibers is rough, black and hard then stripping is insufficient which causes croppy jute.
This kind of knotty jute defects is caused by insect bite in the jute plants.
This type of Jute is hard and barky caused by insufficient removal of hard bark from jute.
Mossy grows in stagnant of water. The mosses adhere to the Jute fibers causing Mossy Jute.
Highly lustrous jute fiber sometimes creates problems. This kind of highly lustrous jute fiber is named as Glossy Jute.
Hairy Jute fiber defects are created due to over retting and careless stripping of Jute.
Long hard and broken ribbon like fibers caused careless stripping and washing.
Dazed Jute Fibers:
The Jute fibre which has lost it’s strength and luster due to over retting or excessive moisture in it.
This kind of defects caused for badly damage rotten or tendered fibers.
Over retting is the main cause of weak fibers, also due to under drying and sorting in moist condition.
Sticky or Woody:
In the top end at the jute plant is not stripped properly from the fiber, the brow pieces of the plant remain the fiber ceurecl this defect. It is due to over retting of the lower part of the plant is under retting of lower part of the plant is under retting of the top end.
Flow Chart of Jute Spinning:
Due to its worldwide demand different country manufacture jute goods. Jute goods produce by a line of sequence. Its manufacturing process is completely different from cotton. By the following way jute goods are produced:
Selection of jute for a batch
↓ (According to jute grade)
Softening or Lubricating
↓ (Application of emulsion on jute)
Conditioning or Piling
↓ (Piling of jute for certain time)
↓ (Inter Card is used between this two)
↓ (It may be half or full circular)
First Drawing Frame
Second Drawing Frame
Third or Finisher Drawing Frame
In the selection process, raw jute bales are opened to find out any defect and to remove the defective portion from the mora by experienced workers. Raw jute bales are of two types i.e. 150 kg weight and 180 kg weight with or without top portion cutting.
The bales are assorted according to end use like Hessiean weft, Sacking wrap, Sacking weft etc. After selection, jute bales are carried to softning section by workers called Gariwala and Bajawala.
Batch & Batching
A number of bales of jute selected for the purpose of manufacturing a particular type of yarn are known as batch.
Batching covers all the process preparatory to carding. The main purpose of batching is to add oil and water to make the jute fiber flexible, soft and stiff free.
In softening process jute morahs are made soft and pliable. Two methods are used for softening; use of softening machine and use of jute good spreader. Generally an emulsion plant with jute softener machine is used to lubricate and soften the bark and gummy raw jute. The emulsion plant consists of gear pump, motor, vat, jet sprayer, nozzles, emulsion tank and the jacket. In this softening process jute becomes soft and pliable and suitable for carding.
Conditioning or Piling and Pile Breaking
Conditioning or piling refers to the rest stage, in which jute is given after the water and oil have been applied. It lasts longer with low grade batching to allow the hard barky root material to become softened before passing on the cards.
The main function of pile breaker is to break the pile and serve it to the carding machines. The softener machine output material carried by pilemen through bile to the pile place for pilling. During piling superficial moisture penetrates inside Fiber and "Thermo fillic" action take place which softener the hard portion of the root. After piling for nearly 24 hours the pile breakers carry the material to the carding machine.
The process by which long reeds of jute while passing through high speed pinned roller and broken down into an entangled mass and delivered in the form of ribbon uniform weight per unit length called jute carding.
There are three different carding sections:
- breaker carding
- inner carding
- finisher carding
In the Breaker carding machine soften jute after piling is feed by hand in suitable weight. The machine by action with different rollers turns out raw jute in the form of jute sliver for finisher carding. In this process root cutting is necessary before feeding the material to the hand feed breaker carding machine.
Finisher carding machine make the sliver more uniform and regular in length and weight obtained from the Breaker carding machine. Finisher carding machine is identical to the Breaker carding machine, having more pair of rollers, staves, pinning arrangement and speed. Nearly 4 to 12 slivers obtained from Breaker carding machine is fed on this machine. The material thus obtained is send to drawing section.
Drawing is a process for reducing sliver width and thickness by simultaneously mixing 4 to 6 sliver together. There are three types of Drawing Frame machine. In most mills 3 Drawing passages are used in Hessian and 2 Drawing passages are used in Sacking.
The slivers obtained from finisher carding machine is fed with four slivers on to the first drawing frame machine. The first drawing frame machines makes blending, equalising the sliver and doubling two or more slivers, level and provide quality and color. This machines includes delivery roller, pressing roller, retaining roller, faller screw sliders, check spring, back spring, crimpling box etc..
In second drawing, the Second Drawing Frame machine obtain the sliver from the First drawing machine and use six slivers and deliveries per head. The Second Drawing machine makes more uniform sliver and reduce the jute into a suitable size for third drawing.
In the third drawing, the Third Drawing frame machine uses the sliver from second drawing. The Third Drawing machine is of high speed makes the sliver more crimpled
and suitable for spinning.
Spinning is the process for producing yarn from sliver obtained from Third drawing. The jute spinning frame machine is fitted with slip draft zone and capable of producing quality yarns at high efficiency with auto-doffing arrangements also.
Advantages of Jute Fiber
- Jute Fiber has great antistatic properties; so that any kind of static charges are not produced during Jute Product making or using.
- Jute is an insulating fiber and this is why it can be used to make cloth which would be used in electrical works.
- Temperature is passed in this fiber slowly because of the low thermal conductivity.
- Moisture Regain properties is good enough (about 13.75%).
- Produce no irritation in skin.
- 100% Biodegradable; so it is environment friendly fiber like Cotton.
- Cheap in market.
- Available in the market and the overall productivity of Jute Fiber is good.
- Tensile strength is high.
- Jute Fabric is highly breathable and comfortable to use.
- Can be widely used in Agriculture Sector, Textile Sector, Woven Sector, Nonwoven Sector.
- Jute Fiber can be blended with Natural and Synthetic fibers.
- Can be died by Basic, Vat, Sulpher and Reactive Dyes.
Disadvantages of Jute Fiber
- The crease resistance of Jute is very low.
- Drape Property is not good enough.
- Create Shade effect and becomes yellowish if sunlight is used.
- If Jute is wetted it loses its strength.
Winding is a process which provides yarn as spools and cops for the requirement of beaming and weaving operations. There are two types of winding :
- Spool Winding
- Cope Winding
In Spool Winding yarn is produces for warp (the longitudinal yarn). Spool winding machine consists of a number of spindles. There is wide variation in the number of spindles per machines from one make to another. Productivity of spool winding depends on the surface speed of the spindle and machine utilisation.
Spool winding machine uses the bobbins contain smaller length of yarn. This machine wound the yarn into bigger packages known as 'spool'. The Spool are used in making sheets of yarn to form warp portion used during interleecment of weaving.
Cop Winding machine obtain yarns from the spinning machines. The spinning bobbins is placed on a suitable pin on top of the cop machine and yarn tension is maintained by means of a small leaver. The yarn on the bobbins are cnverted into hollow cylindrical package said to be cop. The cop is used to form Transverse thread during interlacement of weaving. Generally a cop winding machines consist 120 spindles.
Beaming process is follows after spool winding. In Beaming operation yarn from spool is wounded over a beam of proper width and correct number of ends to weave jute cloth. To increase the quality of woven cloth and weaving efficiency, the wrap yarns are coated with starch paste. Adequate moisture is essential in this process.
Quality characteristic of a beam is width of beam - number of ends and weight of stand and there is a continuous passage of yarn through starch solution from spools to the beam.
Strach solution in water contains tamerine kernel powder (TKP), antiseptic - sodium silica fluride (NaSiF4) and its concentration varies with the quality of yarn.
Weaving is a process of interlacement of two series of threads called "wrap" and "weft" yarns to produce the fabric of desired quality. There are separate looms for hessian and sacking in weaving section. The Hessian looms, shuttle which contents cops (weft yarn) is manually changed. The sacking looms are equipped with eco-loader to load a cop automatically into the shuttle.
Dumping is the process in which the rolled woven cloth is unrolled and water is sprinkled on it continuously to provide desired moisture. Each roll is generally104 yards or 95.976 meters. Damping is done manually.
Calendering is a process similar to ironing of fabric. After damping the damped fabric passes through pairs of heavy rollers rendering threads in fabric flattened and improve the quality and appearance.
Lapping is the process in which Hessian fabrics are folded into the required size used in "Bale press" operation on the lapping machine.
Cutting is the process where the sacking cloth is cut to the required length for making bags for different size such as A-Twill bags and B-twill bags of 100 kg capacity.
In Hemming process, the raw edges of sacking cloth cut pieces are shown by folding it with sewing machine.
Herackele Sewing :
In Herackele sewing the sides of sacking cloth cut pieces are shown to make a complete bag.
Bags or Bale processing cloths are pressed compactly according to buyers need.
Export jute a goods per buyer requirements
Uses/Applications of Jute in Textile & Practical Life:
- Jute is a fiber which has almost 1000 different kind of uses. Jute has been taken as most important fiber like as cotton as it can be used in various purposes and easy to cultivate too.
- Jute sacks are widely used in the practical life and coarse fabric made by Jute has no substitute ever. The wrapping bales or raw cotton also made by Jute.
- As Jute is completely a biodegradable Fiber; it is suitable for many uses if it is replaced in so called synthetic fiber. Synthetic fiber is very unstable and sometimes impacts badly on the natural environment where Jute is quite good alternatives to use.
- Jute fiber can be blended with other natural and cellulosic fiber like Cotton and make a quite stable and different blended yarn which is stronger and shiner.
- Jute is not only used to make yarn or cloth but also it is used to make Jute Pulp and paper. As the people of the world are being so much conscious now and trying to stop the cutting wood or plants to save the nature; Jute is drastically being used as the alternative of Wood in the Paper manufacturing Industry.
- Jute has a bright history of use in making sackings, carpets for the households and so on, cotton bale and wrapping fabrics for that and various fabric manufacturing industry in order to make mats, curtain, brush and etc.
- Now a day Jute is not only being used in Textile industry; but also it is used in Automobile Industry, Furniture and bedding industry and Paper Making industry.
- Jute is also being blended with other fibers to make non-woven, composites and technical textiles. The nomenclature of Jute is “Wood Fiber” which is exclusively being used on the leading manufacturing industries with some promising features.
- By using Jute we can produce various type of fabric named Hosiery Cloth, Hessian Cloth, Sacking, Scrim, Carpet Backing Cloth, canvas etc.
- Hessian is lighter than sacking and is used for bags, wrappers, wall covering, geo textiles, upholstery and different home furnishing. By using the Heavy jute fibers the Sacking is to be made.
- Jute has diversified uses now a days. Some of the exclusive and modern use of Jute is in Espadrilles, Floor coverings, Home textiles, high performance technical textiles, geo textiles, composites, and more.
- Due to the strong color and light fastness properties; just is widely used in decoration of home. Jute is more durable than any other fiber because of its anti-static properties and low thermal conduction.
- Most importantly; Jute is a bio-degradable fiber that comes from nature and decomposed on nature too. So it’s an environment-friendly fiber for the green people to access the green world.
Author of This Article:
S. M. Hossen Uzzal
B.Sc. in Textile Technology
Monno Fabrics Ltd. Manikgonj